Written Material

About

Since its inception, IYNAUS' Yoga Research Committee has been committed to fostering Iyengar Yoga research in order to show the benefits of Iyengar yoga as a means of improving mental, physical, and spiritual health. On this site you will find a compilation of research involving Iyengar Yoga, from sources including research and medical journals to articles written by health professionals within the Iyengar community.

It is our aim that the collation of these findings will create a broader picture of Iyengar Yoga and the way this particular practice of yoga is being seen and utilized in yoga and medical communities worldwide. We also aspire to illuminate gaps in our research and knowledge, inspiring further investigation and publication in order to create more visibility for Iyengar Yoga. We encourage the Iyengar community to utilize this website and contribute any new information that is discovered or published. Please send citations and links to: generalmanager@iynaus.org

We hope that our work, combined with the committed efforts of the National Institute of Health's National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, will further the study of yoga and engender awareness and acceptance of alternative forms of health care.

Research Topics
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AGING
DiBenedetto, M., Innes, KE., Taylor, AG., Rodeheaver, PF., Boxer, JA., Wright, HJ., Kerrigan, DC. (2005, September). Effect of a gentle Iyengar yoga program on gait in the elderly: an exploratory study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 86(9),1830-7. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16181950
Oken, B. S., Zajdel, D., Kishiyama, S., Flegal, K., Dehen, C., Haas, M., Kraemer, D., Lawrence, J., Leyva, J. (2006). Randomized, controlled, six-month trial of yoga in healthy seniors: effects on cognition and quality of life. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 12(1), 40–47.  Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1457100/
Patel, N., Newstead, A., Ferrer, R.. (2012, October). The effects of yoga on physical functioning and health related quality of life in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 18(10), 902-917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2011.0473
Temple University. (2008, April 8). Yoga poses can prevent falls in women over 65, study suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/04/080404114445.htm
AMYTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS
Subbappa, R. (2014, April). Iyengar yoga therapy as an intervention for cramp management in individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Three case reports The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 20(4), 322-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2013.0340
ANXIETY/DEPRESSION AND STRESS
Michalsen, A., Jeitler, M., Brunnhuber, S., Lüdtke, R., Büssing, A., Musial, F., Dobos, G., Kessler, C. (2012). Iyengar yoga for distressed women: A 3-armed randomized controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 2012, 408727. http://doi.org/10.1155/2012/408727
Shapiro, D., Bystritsky, A., Kerwin,, L., Apt, M. (2008). Iyengar yoga as a complementary treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: Pilot study (5). In Scientific Evidence on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Iyengar Yoga: A Compilation of Research Papers. Retrieved from http://iynaus.org/sites/iynaus_files/pages/research/Mumbai_research_compilation.pdf
Shapiro, D., Cook, I. A., Davydov, D. M., Ottaviani, C., Leuchter, A. F.,  Abrams, M. (2007). Yoga as a complementary treatment of depression: Effects of traits and moods on treatment outcome. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 4(4), 493–502. http://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nel114
Streeter CC, Gerbarg PL, Saper RB, Ciraulo DA, Brown RP. (2012, May). Effects of yoga on the autonomic nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric-acid, and allostasis in epilepsy, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder [Abstract]. Med Hypotheses. 78(5), 571-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.021
Streeter, C., Jensen, J., Perlmutter, R., Cabral, H., Tian, H., Terhune, D., Ciraulo, D., Renshaw, P. (2007, May). Yoga asana sessions increase brain GABA levels: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 13(4), 419-426. http://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2007.6338
Streeter, C., Whitfield, T., Owen, L., Rein, T., Karri, S., Yakhkind, A., Perlmutter, R,. Prescot, A., Renshaw, P., Ciraulo, D., Jensen, J. (2010, November). Effects of yoga versus walking on mood, anxiety, and brain GABA levels: A randomized controlled MRS study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 16(11), 1145-1152. http://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0007
Woolery, A., Myers, H., Sternlieb., B., Zeltzer., L. (2004, March/April). A yoga intervention for young adults with elevated symptoms of depression. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 10(2), 60-63.
Retrieved from http://www.modernhcp.com/INNO-PDFS/IMCJ-PDFS/BE8EAF15F08842A291DC88418F8F9BA5.ashx.pdf
ARTHRITIS
Bukowski EL, Conway A, Glentz LA, Kurland K, Galantino ML (October 2006) The effect of Iyengar yoga and strengthening exercises for people living with osteoarthritis of the knee: A case series.. Int Q Community Health Educ. 26(3), 287-305. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17827096
Evans, S., Moieni, M., Taub, R., Subramanian, S., Tsao, J., Sternlieb, B., Zeltzer, L. (May 2010). Iyengar yoga for young adults with rheumatoid arthritis: Results from a mixed-methods pilot study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 39(5), 904-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.09.018
Kolasinski SL, Garfinkel M, Tsai AG, Matz W, Van Dyke A, Schumacher HR. (August 2005). Iyengar yoga for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 11(4), 689-93. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131293
ASTHMA
Sabina, AB., Williams, AL., Wall, HK., Bansal, S., Chupp, G., Katz, DL. (May 2005). Yoga intervention for adults with mild-to-moderate asthma: a pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 94(5), 543-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15945557
BACK PAIN
Cox, H., Tilbrook, H., Aplin, J., Chuang, L.-H., Hewitt, C., Jayakody, S., Semlyen, A., Soares, M., Torgerson, D., Trewhela, A., Watt, I., Worthy, G. (2010). A pragmatic multi-centred randomised controlled trial of yoga for chronic low back pain: Trial protocol. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 16(2), 76–80. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.09.010
Health after 50 alert: Yoga therapy (March 2009). Retrieved from http://www.healthafter50.com/alerts/back_pain_osteoporosis/JohnsHopkinsHealthAlertsBackPainOsteoporosis_2942-1.html
Selfridge, N. (January 2010). From padasana to pain relief: Iyengar yoga for chronic low back pain. Alternative Medicine Alert. 13(1), 9. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/47531676/from-padasana-pain-relief-iyengar-yoga-chronic-low-back-pain
Williams, K., Abildso, C., Steinberg, L., Doyle, E., Epstein, B., Smith, D., Hobbs, G., Gross, R., Kelley, G., Cooper, L. (2009). Evaluation of the effectiveness and efficacy of Iyengar yoga therapy on chronic low back pain. SPINE. 34(19), 2066-76. Retrieved from http://www.innerfocusphysio.com.au/resources/Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Efficacy of Iyengar Yoga Therapy on Chronic Low Back Pain.pdf
Williams, K., Petronis, J., Smith, D., Goodrich, D., Wu, J., Ravi, N., Doyle, E. Jr., Gregory, R., Munoz, M., Gross, R., Steinberg, L. (May 2005). Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain. Pain. 115(1-2), 107-17. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15836974
Williams, K., Steinberg, L., Petronis, J. (2003) Therapeutic application of Iyengar yoga for healing chronic low back pain. International Journal of Yoga Therapy. 13(1), 55-67. Retrieved from https://iynaus.org/sites/iynaus_files/pages/Therapeutic-Application-Yoga-Lumbar-pain-2003.pdf
BONE HEALTH
Brody, J. (December 2015). 12 Minutes of Yoga for Bone Health. New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/12/21/12-minutes-of-yoga-for-stronger-bones/?smprod=nytcore-iphone&smid=nytcore-iphone-share
BREAST CANCER
Banasik, J., Williams, H., Haberman, M., Blank, SE., Bendel, R. (March 2011). Effect of Iyengar yoga practice on fatigue and diurnal salivary cortisol concentration in breast cancer survivors. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 23(3), 135-42. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.2010.00573.x
Bower, J., Garet, D., Sternlieb, B., Ganz, P., Irwin, M., Olmstead, R., Greendale, G. (August 2012). Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 118(15), 3766-75. http://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.26702
Danhauer, S., Tooze, J., Farmer, D., Campbell, C., McQuellon, R., Barrett, R., Miller, B. (Spring 2008). Restorative yoga for women with ovarian or breast cancer: findings from a pilot study [Abstract]. J Soc Integr Oncol. 6(2), 47-58. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544284
Galantino, M., Desai, K., Greene, L., DeMichele, A., Stricker, C., Mao, J. (December 2012). Impact of yoga on functional outcomes in breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgias. Integr Cancer Ther. 11(4), 313-20. http://doi.org/10.1177/1534735411413270
Leibel, C. (August 2010) Special yoga classes aimed at breast cancer survivors improves recovery: U of A study. Retrieved from https://uofa.ualberta.ca/news-and-events/newsarticles/2010/08/specialyogaclassesaimedatbreastcancersurvivorsimprovesrecoveryuofastudy
Schultz, P., Haberman, M., Nichols, J., Daratha, K., Blank, S. (April 2007) Down-regulated lymphocyte NF-kB activation in breast cancer survivors following yoga participation [Abstract]. FASEB J. 21, 765-7.  Retrieved from http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/21/6/A930-b
Schultz, P., Haberman, M., Nichols, J., Daratha, K., Blank, S. (April 2007) Down-regulated lymphocyte NF-kB activation in breast cancer survivors following yoga participation [Press release]. FASEB J. 21, 765-7.  Retrieved from http://www.the-aps.org/mm/hp/Audiences/Public-Press/Archive/07/22.html
Speed-Andrews, A., Stevinson, C., Belanger, L., Mirus, J., Courneya, K.      (September-October 2010) Pilot evaluation of an Iyengar yoga program for breast cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs. 33(5), 369-81. http://doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181cfb55a
CANCER
Duncan, M. D., Leis, A., & Taylor-Brown, J. W. (2008). Impact and outcomes of an Iyengar yoga program in a cancer centre. Current Oncology, 15(Suppl 2), S72–S78. http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.v15i0.284; Full text retrieved from http://www.current-oncology.com/index.php/oncology/article/view/284/280
Evans, S., Seidman, L., Sternlieb, B., Casillas, J., Zeltzer, L., & Tsao, J. (2017). Clinical case report: yoga for fatigue in five young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Journal of adolescent and young adult oncology, 6(1), 96-101. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jayao.2016.0013?casa_token=m2nddek-wgEAAAAA%3A2dqh_Tnx9AypbbkE3qi_JmS8CRMIKTOqr3ZKJC1cDAY_RB6wFrX5jPZiv7iNzemUEepRCpjiLfORVA&
CARDIAC HEALTH
Lakkireddy, D., Atkins, D., Pillarisetti, J., Ryschon, K., Bommana, S., Drisko, J.,…Buddhadeb, D. (2013). Effect of yoga on arrhythmia burden, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: The YOGA My Heart Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 61(11), 1177–1182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2012.11.060; Full text retrieved from http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1567301
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
Garfinkel, M. S., Singhal, A., Katz, W. A., Allan, D. A., Reshetar, R., & Schumacher, Jr, H. R. (1998). Yoga-based intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(18), 1601-1603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.280.18.1601; Full text retrieved from http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=188150
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
Donesky-Cuenco, D., Nguyen, H. Q., Paul, S., & Carrieri-Kohlman, V. (2009). Yoga therapy decreases dyspnea-related distress and improves functional performance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(3), 225–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0389; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3051406/
DIABETES
Alexander, G. K., Innes, K. E., Brown, C. J., Kulbok, P., Bourguignon, C., Bovbjerg, V. E., & Taylor, A. G. (2010). “I could move mountains”: Adults with or at risk for type 2 diabetes reflect on their experiences with yoga practice. The Diabetes Educator, 36(6), 965–975. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145721710381802 ; Full text retrieved from http://tde.sagepub.com/content/36/6/965.full.pdf+html
GENERAL HEALTH & WELL BEING
Belluz, J. (2015, July 22). I read more than 50 scientific studies about yoga. Here’s what I learned. Vox. Retrieved from http://www.vox.com/2015/7/22/9012075/yoga-health-benefits-exercise-science
Dhikav, V., Karmarkar, G., Gupta, R., Verma, M., Gupta, R., Gupta, S., & Anand, K. S. (2010), Yoga in female sexual functions. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(2, Pt. 2), 964–970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01580.x; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19912493
Dhikav, V., Karmarkar, G., Verma, M., Gupta, R., Gupta, S., Mittal, D., & Anand, K. (2010), Yoga in male sexual functioning: A noncomparative pilot study. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(10), 3460–3466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01930.x; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20646186
Flegal, K.E., Kishiyama, S., Zajdel, D., Haas, M., & Oken, B.S. (2007).  Adherence to yoga and exercise interventions in a 6-month clinical trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 7(37). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-7-37; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2194735/
Harner, H., Hanlon, A. L., & Garfinkel, M. (2010). Effect of Iyengar yoga on mental health of incarcerated women: A feasibility study. Nursing Research, 59(6), 389–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/nnr.0b013e3181f2e6ff; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20842067
Khattab, K., Khattab, A. A., Ortak, J., Richardt, G., & Bonnemeier, H. (2007). Iyengar yoga increases cardiac parasympathetic nervous modulation among healthy yoga practitioners, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4(4), 511-517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem087; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2176143/
Lea, J. (2009) Liberation or limitation? Understanding Iyengar yoga as a practice of the self. Body & Society 15(3), 71-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034x09339100; Abstract retrieved from http://bod.sagepub.com/content/15/3/71
Newcombe, S. (2009). The development of modern yoga: A survey of the field. Religion Compass, 3(6), 986–1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00171.x; Full text retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221935759
Raub, J. A. (2004). Psychophysiologic effects of hatha yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function: A literature review. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 8(6), 797–812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/10755530260511810; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12614533
Ross, A., & Thomas, S. (2010). The health benefits of yoga and exercise: A review of comparison studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(1), 3–12. http://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2009.0044; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20105062
Ross, A., Friedmann, E., Bevans, M., & Thomas, S. (2012). Frequency of yoga practice predicts health: Results of a national survey of yoga practitioners. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012. http://doi.org/10.1155/2012/983258; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3425136/
Van Puymbroeck, M., Payne, L. L., & Hsieh, P.-C. (2007). A phase I feasibility study of yoga on the physical health and coping of informal caregivers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 4(4). http://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nem075; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2176147/
HYPERTENSION
Cohen, D., & Townsend, R. R. (2007), Yoga and hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 9(10), 800–801. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7176.2007.tb00008.x; Full text retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-7176.2007.tb00008.x/full
Cohen, D. L., Bloedon, L. T., Rothman, R. L., Farrar, J. T., Galantino, M. L., Volger, S.,…Townsend, R. R. (2011). Iyengar yoga versus enhanced usual care on blood pressure in patients with prehypertension to stage I hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 1-8. http://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep130; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145370/
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
Evans, S., Cousins, L., Tsao, J. C., Sternlieb, B., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2011). Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome. Trials, 12(15). http://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-12-15; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3033835/
Evans, S., Seidman, L. C., Lung, K., Sternlieb, B., & Zeltzer, L. K. (2018). Yoga for Teens With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Results From a Mixed-Methods Pilot Study. Holistic nursing practice, 32(5), 253-260. https://journals.lww.com/hnpjournal/Abstract/2018/09000/Yoga_for_Teens_With_Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome_.5.aspx
MENOPAUSE
Cohen, B. E., Kanaya, A. M., Macer, J. L., Shen, H., Chang, A. A., & Grady, D. (2007). Feasibility and acceptability of restorative yoga for treatment of hot flushes: A pilot trial. Maturitas, 56(2), 198–204. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2006.08.003; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=10.1016/j.maturitas.2006.08.003
Elavsky, S., & McAuley, E. (2009). Personality, menopausal symptoms, and physical activity outcomes in middle-aged women. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(2), 123–128. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.014; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2621079/
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
Oken, B. S., Kishiyama, S., Zajdel, D., Bourdette, D., Carlsen, J., Haas, M.,…Mass, M. (2004). Randomized controlled trial of yoga and exercise in multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 62(11), 2058–2064. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000129534.88602.5C; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15184614
NECK PAIN
Allende, S., Anandan, A., Lauche, R., & Cramer, H. (2018). Effect of yoga on chronic non-specific neck pain: An unconditional growth model. Complementary therapies in medicine, 40, 237-242. https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article/14/4/541/1825421
Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Hohmann, C., Langhorst, J., & Dobos, G. (2013). Yoga for chronic neck pain: a 12-month follow-up. Pain Medicine, 14(4), 541-548. https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article/14/4/541/1825421
Michalsen, A., Traitteur, H., Lüdtke, R., Brunnhuber, S., Meier, L., Jeitler, M.,…Kessler, C. (2012). Yoga for chronic neck pain: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. The Journal of Pain, 13(11), 1122–1130. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2012.08.004; Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23117107
OVARIAN CANCER
Danhauer, et al. (2008) Restorative yoga for women with ovarioan or breast cancer: findings from a pilot study.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544284
PANCREATITIS
Danhauer, S. C., Tooze, J. A., Farmer, D. F., Cambell, C. R., McQuellon, R. P., Barrett, R., & Miller, B. E. (2008).  Restorative yoga for women with ovarian or breast cancer: Findings from a pilot study. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology 6(2), 47-58.  Abstract retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18544284
Sareen, S., Kumari, V., Gajebasia, K. S., & Gajebasia, N. K. (2007). Yoga: A tool for improving the quality of life in chronic pancreatitis. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13(3), 391-397. http://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v13.i3.391; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065893/
PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Colgrove, Y., Sharma, N., Robbins, K., & Wagner, K. (2015). A randomized controlled pilot study of the therapeutic effects of yoga in people with Parkinson′s disease. International Journal of Yoga 8(1), 74. http://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.146070; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4278140/
RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME
Innes, K. E., Selfe, T. K., Agarwal, P., Williams, K., & Flack, K. L. (2013). Efficacy of an eight-week yoga intervention on symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS): A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 19(6), 527–535. http://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2012.0330; Full text retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3673587/
SPINAL CORD INJURY
Zwick, D. (2006). Integrating Iyengar yoga into rehab for spinal cord injury. Nursing, 36(PT Insider), 18–22. http://doi.org/10.1097/00152193-200610002-00006; Full text retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/nursing/Fulltext/2006/10002/Integrating_Iyengar_yoga_into_rehab_for_spinal.6.aspx